Drafting, Technical Drawing: "Language of a Drawing" 1948 McGraw-Hill Text-Films


Durasi : 09:46
Deskripsi : more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oro95Yiu4gs Public domain film from the Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_drawing Technical drawing, also known as drafting or draughting, is the act and discipline of composing plans that visually communicate how something functions or has to be constructed. Drafting is the visual language of industry and engineering. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes a drawing (technical or otherwise). A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician. People who communicate with technical drawings, (those who design and those who are tradespeople), may use technical standards that define practical symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, or layout conventions. These enable a drafter to communicate more concisely by using a commonly understood convention. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language, and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand. This need for unambiguous communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted; their meanings are multiply determined. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning... Methods . Sketching A sketch is a quickly executed freehand drawing that is not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for later use. Architect's sketches primarily serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before undertaking a more finished work, especially when the finished work is expensive and time consuming. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of diagrams. These sketches, like metaphors, are used by architects as a mean of communication in aiding design collaboration. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process. Manual or by instrument The basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper (or other material) on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is then placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, and over the surface of the paper. "Parallel lines" can be drawn simply by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-square's edge, but more typically the T-square is used as a tool to hold other devices such as set squares or triangles. In this case the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can then draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Modern drafting tables (which have by now largely been replaced by CAD workstations) come equipped with a drafting machine that is supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper. Because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel. In addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw curves and circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, and the French curve, typically a piece of plastic with complex curves on it. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal that can be manually bent to most curves... Computer aided design Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have largely been automated and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design systems (CAD). There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings" two dimensions ("2D") and three dimensions ("3D"). 2D CAD systems such as AutoCAD or MicroStation replace the paper drawing discipline. The lines, circles, arcs and curves are created within the software. It is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle orthographic projections, auxiliary projections and cross sections. A 2D CAD system is merely an electronic drawing board. Its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions... Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing...

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